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​​Social-Ecological Model​​​​​​​​​​

Social Ecological Model  

TUPE uses a five-level social-ecological model to assess how environmental and interpersonal factors can encourage or deter tobacco use and vaping among youth. Each level of the model identifies a point of influence and a potential opportunity for intervention. 

  • The “Individual” level examines the influence of factors such as attitudes and knowledge. 
  • The “Interpersonal” level examines the role of peers, family, partners, and mentors. The
  • The “School” and “Community” levels explore how behavior is impacted by teachers and the social and physical characteristics of institutions, environmental settings, media, and advertising.
  • The “Policy” level looks at the broader implications of laws, rules, and enforcement measures. 

The model provides a useful framework to assist TUPE programs and community partners in determining how to focus strategies and resources.​

Strategic Prevention Framework​​​​​

The Strategic Prevention Framework (SPF) provides a comprehensive approach to guide TUPE prevention programs using a five-step model for continuous improvement and effective programming:

  1. Assessment: Identify local prevention needs based on data 
  2. Capacity: Build local resources and readiness to address prevention needs 
  3. Planning: Find out what works to address prevention needs and how to implement strategies effectively, then create a plan of action  
  4. Implementation: Deliver evidence-based programs and practices as intended 
  5. Evaluation: Examine the process and outcomes of programs and practices ​

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​​School Connectedne​​ss​

diverse group of folks walking together  

Prevention programs are successful when students feel connected to their school.  Students who feel connected to school are more likely to have positive health and academic outcomes. Crucial to that connection is the development of trusting and meaningful relationships on campus.

Four essential factors crucial to strengthening school connectedn​ess for students include: 

  1. Adult support
  2. Belonging to a positive peer group​
  3. Commitment to education
  4. A​​ positive school environment



Hart’s Ladder of Young People’s Participation

Hart's Ladder is a visual illustration of the importance and value of youth participation in prevention programs. The highest rung on the ladder involves youth initiated projects where youth and adult allies share equal levels of decision making. 

This ladder challenges educators to move away from the lower rungs of non-participation (youth as decoration, tokenizing youth, or assigning/informing youth) to the higher rungs in which young people are genuinely engaged as partners. 

Meaningful youth engagement is vital in creating safe, supportive, and healthy school environments that lead to better peer to peer connections, student to adult relationships, and overall school connectedness. 

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