TUPE uses a five-level social-ecological model to assess how environmental and interpersonal factors can encourage or deter tobacco use and vaping among youth. Each level of the model identifies a point of influence and a potential opportunity for intervention.
The model provides a useful framework to assist TUPE programs and community partners in determining how to focus strategies and resources.
The Strategic Prevention Framework (SPF) provides a comprehensive approach to guide TUPE prevention programs using a five-step model for continuous improvement and effective programming:
Students who feel connected to school are more likely to have positive health and academic outcomes. Crucial to that connection is the development of trusting and meaningful relationships on campus.
Four essential factors crucial to strengthening school connectedness for students include:
Hart's Ladder is a visual illustration of the importance and value of youth participation in prevention programs. The highest rung on the ladder involves youth initiated projects where youth and adult allies share equal levels of decision making.
This ladder challenges educators to move away from the lower rungs of non-participation (youth as decoration, tokenizing youth, or assigning/informing youth) to the higher rungs in which young people are genuinely engaged as partners.
Meaningful youth engagement is vital in creating safe, supportive, and healthy school environments that lead to better peer to peer connections, student to adult relationships, and overall school connectedness.